Marriage can be found at the manufacturing enterprise and beyond its limits. The marriage shown in the sphere of realization or in the course of use of production testifies both to its bad quality, and to quality of work of the enterprise. It is called as the claim.
where KFSA – economic efficiency of FSA (coefficient of decrease in the current expenses); – really developed cumulative expenses; Sf.n. – minimum possible costs corresponding to the designed product.
If the indicator of quality has numerical characteristics, at creation of indexes they can be used as the weight of expenses. Otherwise as scales the quantity of elements of a design of a product, quantity of details, knots, products can serve.
Having compared the specific weight of costs of function in the general expenses and the importance of the function corresponding to it, it is possible to calculate coefficient of costs of each function. Kz/f ≈ Kz/f <1 is considered optimum more desirably, than Kz/f> At essential excess of this coefficient of unit it is necessary to look for ways of reduction in cost of this function (in our example it is the second function).
Costs of ensuring quality of production are part of the general costs of production and operation of production for the entire period of its service. From economic positions these expenses represent the sum of the current and one-time costs used by the manufacturer and the consumer at all stages of life cycle of production.
Taking into account the importance of function of a product, its knots, details and level of expenses by means of pricing, based on knowledge of demand for production, the level of its profitability is defined. All this in total serves the purpose of making decision on a choice to production of a concrete product or the directions and scale of its improvement.
The policy of the enterprise has to be directed on quality achievement. Marriage which is his contrast can arise at any enterprise. But anyway costs of marriage need also to be analyzed.
The point of intersection of these two curves usually is a point of the minimum costs. But in practice it is hard to receive even a rough estimate as it is necessary to consider many other variables. Nevertheless this task is the most important task for the management. In many firms such calculations are not made though calculation of costs of quality can be a source to huge economy.
On the third, analytical, a stage functions of a product (their structure, usefulness degree), its cost and possibilities of its reduction by cutting off of minor and useless functions are in detail studied. It can be not only technical, but also organoleptic, esthetic and other functions of a product or its details, knots. It is for this purpose expedient to use Eisenhower's principle – the principle of AVS according to which functions share on:
Versions of the decision in which it is necessary to compare cumulative costs of the products which are the sum of step-by-step expenses with any base are result of the carried-out FSA. For example, minimum possible costs for a product can form this base. The theory of FSA suggests to estimate economic efficiency of FSA which shows, what share is made by decrease in expenses in their minimum possible size:
Of course, at increase in costs for quality management of costs of marriage will decrease. However it does not mean that the enterprise should increase costs of quality beyond all bounds. It is necessary to analyze constantly costs for quality management, costs of marriage and joint costs of the enterprise since at unreasonable increase in costs of quality growth of joint costs is possible.